We all see them pointing at us or as part of merchandise in high end stores or even in specialist camera shops. Welcome to the world of cameras. Cameras whether embedded on your mobile phone, laptop, or as an independent gadget such as a simple domestic camera, professional camera or CCTV cameras, etc – are some of the most exceptional inventions of mankind. Yes, without a doubt, cameras stand out as amazing image capture devices. Stretching way back to 16 Century, the camera has been an instrumental in shaping the way information is captured, presented and stored/preserved. Understanding how the CCTV camera functions is key to optimizing its usage.


 There are a number of ways that CCTV Cameras can be classified
A: Type of lens
This is where the camera comes already fitted with a calibrated lens with the best view position (Focal Point) already determined. In this case, the user does not need to carry out any focusing attempts as this is already determined.
Some Cameras come already fitted with a variable lens, i.e, the user is able to vary the the focal length. Such lenses have several F.stops that the user may determine depending on the perspective he/she wants to capture.
PTZ (Pan Tilt and Zoom):
 these a cameras that can be controlled remotely to Pan, Tilt and Zoom. Our concern here is the Zoom Feature. The lens normally uses optical zoom. The higher the number the more the capability.
B: Day or Night
Some Cameras have day capability only- i.e only work optimally during the day. Such cameras have no low light or night capabilities and thus “see” nothing at night time. Other cameras have Night capability and thus have come to be known as Day & Night Cameras. This feature makes them popular as most one does not have to worry about low light levels. Such Cameras are normally equipped with Near infrared illumination that enable them to “see” at night. Near infrared is invisible to the naked eye.
C: Indoor or Outdoor:
Not all camera are suitable for any environment. Harsh outdoor conditions tend to render useless cameras not built to withstand such environments. Outdoor cameras tend to be robust and withstand conditions such as stormy weather, dusty conditions,  vandalism, etc- all these are possibilities in outside weather. For a camera to qualify to be an outdoor it must have an Ingress Protection rating of 6 for both water and dust i.e IP66. Although the Industry Standard has been IP65, some manufactures have exceeded this standard, as such there are camera housings that are of IP67 or even IP68 rating!!


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